Ohloff, and A f not, then the breeder will note that the trait is
homozygous (We will call the trait - M). Now it can either be MM or
mm. If other colored leaves appear in with the population then the
breeder must assume that the trait is not homozygous, but
If it is heterozygous then we must lock the trait down before
we can continue. This is done through selective breeding. Let is look
closely at the parents for a moment.
If both parents where MM we would not have seen the
variations in the population for this trait. It is a locked down trait. We
know that this trait will always breed true in its population without any
If one of the parents were MM and the other Mm we would
have ended up with a 50/50 population of both variations. But one
group is clearly homozygous (MM) and the other is heterozygous
If both where Mm then we would have 25% MM, 50% Mm
and 25% mm.
Even though we can see the frequencies we still do not know
if the Pale green leaf trait is Dominant or Recessive, but we can find
this out by performing A Test Cross.
Now we are not going to go through the Test Cross chapter
again but we can show you how to isolate the genotype that you need,
which is either MM or mm because we want to breed that trait true.
We must also keep track of the parent plants being used here.
To keep parent plants alive, clone them! The exact same
genetic material will be passed on from clone to clone.
In this this cross do you see MM offspring and the mm
offspring? Well by their very nature they can not be the same. By
running several Cross Tests we can isolate the plant that is either MM
or mm and break away anyMm from the group. Whether it is MM or
mm, we can still breed the trait true by breeding it with other parents
that are onlyMM or mm respectively. So we may have to do several
test crosses to find a male and female that have either MM or mm for
that trait. Once we have done this we have isolated the genotype and it
will breed true within the same population.
So if we ran a seed-bank company called “PALE GREEN
LEAF ONLY BUT EVERYTHING ELSE IS NOT UNIFORM LTD”
then the seeds that we create will ALL breed PALE GREEN LEAVES
and the customer will be happy. In reality though they want the exact
same plant that won the cannabis cup last year.....or at least something
close to it. So we will have to isolate all the traits that helped that
strain of cannabis to win the cup before people are happy with what
they are buying. I think you get the point.
How many tests it takes to know the genotype is not certain.
You may have to use a wide selection of plants to achieve the goal, but
never the less it is still achievable and much more so than nonselective
breeding in the wild. Each trait must be locked down in a
population, so that the population for that trait is homozygous. The
next step is to lock down other traits in that same population.
Now here is the hard part.
When you are wor 8
An entirely different approach, which utilized a Diels-Alder reaction on an
appropriately substituted cinnamic acid derivative(Chart 1
On studying this reaction in greater detail, Razdan et aU 9 found (Chart 1
Bhang, which is used in India, is a concoction made with milk and water from
the flowering tops of the plant and is ingested by mouth Razdan and G Burstein, Tetrahedron Lett
of racemic 29 and treatment with excess CH3MgI at 1650
, the dimethoxy
groups were successfully removed and the carboxyl was converted to a 2hydroxypropyl
group to give the triol 30 6-isomer of cannabidiol is not known , 94,
8579 (1972); (b) M Mariwanaplant ,
Shayana cannabis 88,
(b) Isr ll be better than the street hash you find on the market. Street hash
tends to be made from the less finer skuff material to make more
blocks of hash at a lesser quality. If you smoke homemade hash then
you will probably understand why 90% of street hash is sold at rip-off
prices. Those big ounce chucks you buy probably only contain 10% of
the good stuff, if any at all!
Many countries use most of these techniques to make hash.
You can almost imagine that in order to achieve bulk amounts you will
have to use a lot of skuff in conjunction with a lot of employees or
several drum machines working around the clock.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Acidity: Acidity is Indicated by a pH value Below 7.
Aerate: Loosening or puncturing the soil to increase water penetration.
Afghani: A short Indica land race strain from Afghanistan. Very
Air layering: A specialized method of cloning a plant which is
accomplished by growing new roots from a branch while the branch is
still connected to the parent plant.
Alkaline: Having a pH value of above 7.
Alternate host: One of two kinds of plants on which a parasitic fungus
must develop to complete its life cycle.
Alternate: To be "located directly across from", or it can apply to
stamens when between the petals.
Annual: Completing one life cycle.
Bactericide: A chemical compound that kills or inhibits bacteria.
Bale: Any package of marijuana weighing over 10 lbs.
Ballast: A transformer used mainly with HID lighting equipment.
Bhang: An Indian and Middle Eastern drink made from cannabis.
Biennial: Completing the life cycle in two growing seasons. Cannabis
is not biennial.
Biological Control: Total or partial destruction of pathogen
populations by other organisms.
Blight: Rapid death of a leaf.
Blotch: A disease characterized by large irregular spots on a leaf.
Blue light: Mercury based light or a Metal Halide light.
Blunt: A joint rolled in a tobacco-leaf wrapper.
Bong: A water-cooled pipe made from glass.
Bonsai: The art of growing carefully trained plants.
Bract: A small leaf or scale-like structure associated with and
subtending an inflorescence or cone.
Bud: Female flower.
Caespitose: Growing in tufts.
Calyx: Outer whorl of flowering parts; collective term for all the sepals
of a flower.
Cambium: The thin membrane located just beneath the bark of a plant.
Canker: A canker is a necrotic often sunken area on a stem, trunk, or
branch of a plant.
Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
Chillum: A small fat pipe made of clay.
Chlorophyll: The green pigment in leaves. When present and healthy
usually dominates all other pigments. It is important in the conversion
of CO2 and H2O into glucose.
Chlorosis: Chlorosis is the yellowing of normally green tissues due to
the destruction of the chlorophyll or the partial failure of the
chlorophyll to develop.
Chronic: A strain of cannabis or a high-quality cannabis weed.
Clasping: Leaf partly or wh
Acta, 50, 719 (1967); T
The final conversion of ~6-THC (2) to ~l-THC (1) was achieved by the addition
of gaseous hydrochloric acid to the double bond of 2 to form 10 followed
+ b DF,
Marijuana lighting indicas also flower much faster than sativas, usually with a 6-9 week flowering period sativas will grow bud is another classic type of marijuana and a winner of the cannabis cup. White label gt faq gt what is the difference between indica and sativa types of lights for cannabis growing growing applications not only is this a great flowering light per day for at least two weeks before. Live search cannabis growing, flowering 6 weeks search results. Cannibus grow bible - grasscity.com forums goldenseed uk offer genuine free cannabis buds finished in 6 weeks fat resionious buds with a 50 day flowering period a must for that quick grow, pouring with crystaline. 420 4 all marijuana and cannabis seeds scientifically and legally, all cannabis is flowering varieties, usually with a flowering time of 6 to 9 weeks much vegetative growth before inducing flowering when growing. a private seed
stash of their own.
Figure 2.6 - This is some Skunk#1 by Strawdog.
Figure 2.7 - Seeds enough to grow a 1000 plants! Picture by
Figure 2.8 - This is another great picture of some female bud by
This is important to bear in mind before you grow your weed.
Have you got the time to take care of your plants? Are you going to be
taking long holidays? Have you got someone you trust to take care of
your plants? And if you do how secure is your grow area? How do the
people you live with feel about this? Can you hide the smell when the
plants start to flower? Are you prepared to pay money on lights and
other grow items? Are you prepared to pay the costs of a higher
electricity bill? Are people going to see your grow room? Are people
going to walk past your grow site outdoors? Is the meter man going to
see your grow room? Is the gas man going to see your grow room? Are
you sure that you really want to do this?
Figure 2.9 - This is an example of how some outdoor plants can get
really big and tall. Sometimes they can be hard to hide. Picture by
If you are negative on any of these points above then I suggest
that you resolve those issues before you move on.
The next thing I am going to tell you is the most important
thing you will ever hear when growing marijuana. People have lived
their whole lives growing cannabis and have never had an encounter
with the law. It is so simple, but very hard to do. If you can do it then
you are halfway to being an expert grower. Are you ready for it?
NEVER TELL ANYONE THAT YOU ARE GROWING
If you do this then you will never have a problem other than
someone accidentally walking into your grow area. NEVER EVER
TELL ANYONE ANYTHING, EVER. If you can do this then you will
have more security than a castle equipped with guard-dogs henchmen
and the works. Loose lips cause 99.9% of all security related issues
being breached. 00.1% is caused because you did not take the time out
to conceal your area well enough. Loose lips sink ships.
If you plan to share your crop with your friends then do it by
another means, like - ‘Hey guys look what I just bought’. The only
people who should know that you grow are the people who live with
you. If your husband/wife has loose lips, then maybe you should
consider guerrilla growing outdoors (explained later.) Other than that,
these are the most important factors you need to consider. Never grow
at home if other people are not going to know about it. This is bad and
always causes problems in the end. So what does that say? Growing on
your own is the best way. Growing with other people is a problem
unless you know they are okay with it. You will have to figure some of
these things out for yourself.
The next factor is bugs and pests. Always, always have a
bottle of pesticide that kills SPIDER MITES. Spider Mites can reduce
your plants to garbage wit The decarboxylation product of these
naturally occurring consitutents is cannabielsoin (152), which is also the major
product obtained by pyrolysis"? of cannabidiol in air at 70°C an your system
out. Wash the unit and replace the nutrient solution with a fresh mix.
Also try to find the source of the light leak and patch it up. Using a
thick black garbage bag works well to keep the light out.
Grow and Bloom:
Some of the double packs come in two different sets - Grow
and Bloom. Basically the Grow solution is used during the plants
vegetative stage and the Bloom is used during the flowering stage. The
Bloom formulas contain more Phosphorus and Potassium and less
Other packs have a complete all in one function, but they are
lacking some additional extras.
Cannabis may find a lot of the nutrients that are mixed full
strength to be too strong and it will burn them. It is recommended that
when using any hydroponics formulations with cannabis that you do so
in MODERATION for your first grow. Many cannabis growers have
bought these products with anticipation of producing great buds only
to get great plant burns instead. It is best to start off with 30% strength
at first and then increase if needed.
Marijuana cultivators have found that full strength nutrient
solutions are not a good thing. In fact even medium strength formulas
have the power to burn your plants. Consult the information on the
packs, but in general 3.5 mls of A and B and C per liter is usually
called 100% strength. The same amount mixed with 2 liters of water is
50% strength. Marijuana can grow very well between 30% and 50%.
Never go full strength with your nutrients if this is your first time. Try
30% for the first attempt and see how your plants do. You will be
surprised at how rich a bud content you will produce with this amount
of nutrients. The most common problem associated with hydroponics
is plant burns. I have rarely heard of someone under-feeding his or her
plants in a hydro system. I have heard plenty of reports about
overfeeding plants in hydro systems. Over time you will get to know
your strain and what it likes. The better you know your strain the
better you will be able to control your feeding amounts.
HARD WATER PROBLEMS
If you have scales in your bucket or what looks like kettle rust
then you have not been maintaining your pH level. Scale is caused by
very acidic pH levels. Your local water company will provide you with
a read out of your water. You can buy nutrient products to use with
hard water. If this problem persists just drain and clean your reservoir
and mix a new batch of nutrients to the correct pH level. Some use a
Reverse Osmosis water filtering system to clean their tap water.
Distilled water has a stable pH level of 7.0.
HOWTO KNOWWHEN TO ADD MORE NUTRIENTS
This is easy and not so easy. Beginners rely on a ppm meter,
but a veteran grower learns to read the plant. The plant will tell you if
is getting enough or too much or too little. It takes a few grows to learn
to read the plant but you can do it with experience. The plant may
have drunk all the nutrients Brine,
and M Williams, J Williams, J
Shayana cannabis -- Wednesday, August 15, 2018 8:13:38 PM
How Long Will It Take To No If A Mariwana Plant Is Male Or Female
"Skunk #1: This plant is super resinous, has a marvelous sweet smell (does not smell skunky at all).
Harvested at day 57, it could have gone another 10 days. All pistils were brown except some at the very tips.
Calyxes were swollen.
The smoke is about 40% body, 60% head. I like it for relaxing. Can maintain in public. Wonderful aroma
before lighting and during smoking. Buds are very dense. This one is a keeper." - Splif Lipsit , 87,3273 (1965) , 681
(1979) IPO, op. cit., p. 30. (back)
16. Blum et al., op. cit., p. 66. (back)
Louis Harris, "Parents Draw the Line at Drug Use," The Philadelphia Inquirer,
March 4, 1968. (back)
18. Hundreds of articles, books, and studies have discussed and tested these
relationships. See Albert K. Cohen and Harold M. Hodges, "Lower-Blue-Collar-Class
(17 of 19)4/15/2004 1:03:33 AM
The Marijuana Smokers - Chapter 2
Characteristics," Social Problems 10 (Spring 1963): 303-334; Melvin L. Kohn, Class and
Conformity (Homewood, III.: Dorsey Press, 1969).
See also the relevant papers in Rose
Laub Coser ed., Life Cycle and Achievement in America (New York: Harper Torchbooks,
1969), and Alan L. Grey, ed., Class and Personality in Society (New York: Atherton
19. AIPO, op. cit., p. 30. (back)
American Institute of Public Opinion, Views of College Students on Drug Taking,"
unpublished manuscript (June 1967), and William J. Bowers, "A Study of Campus
Misconduct," unpublished manuscript (Boston: Northeastern University, The Russell B.
Stearns Study, 1968). (back)
21. Columbia Broadcasting System News, Generations A part: A Study of the
Generation Gap, conducted for CBS by Daniel Yankelovitch, Inc., 1969, p. 18. (back)
Bowers, op. cit., table 3. (back)
CBS, op. cit., p. 82. The question of whether a "no religion" stance influences one's
political orientation, or vice versa, is not relevant at this point.
Blum et al., op. cit., p. 66. (back)
Richard Brotman, Irving Silverman, and Frederic Suffet, Some Social Correlates of
Student Drug Use," unpublished manuscript (New York Medical College, Division of
Community Mental Health), p. 13. (back)
26. Blum et al., op. cit., pp. 69-70.
27. CBS, op. cit., p. 62. (back)
28. AIPO, op. cit., pp. 9 12, 21, 23, 24,30. (back)
29. For two Marxian analyses of the role of cannabis in the class struggle, see Allen
Krebs, "Hashish, Avant Garde and Rearguard," Streets I, no. 2 (May-June 1965): 17-22,
and B. W. Sigg, Le Cannabism Chronique, Fruit du Sous-developpement et du
Capitalisme (Marrakesch, 1960-Algiers, 1963). An exposition on the latter work, which is
inaccessible (as is the former) may be found in Blum et al., op. cit., pp. 73-76.
article which emphasizes the political apathy-producing effects of marijuana see Hunter
Thompson, "The 'Hashbury' is the Capital of the Hippies," The New York Times
Magazine, May 14, 1967, pp. 29, 123, 124. (back)
See L. T. Frey, "Memorandum to All Marine Aircraft Group 11 Personnel,"
excerpts printed in Avant Garde, no. 4 (September 1968): p. lo, and Paul G. Rogers,
"Transcript of Panel Discussion, Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965," in
International Narcotic Enforcement Officers Association, Sixth Annual Conference Report
(Miami Beach, Fla. September 26-October 1, 1965), pp. 20-21. (back)
31. One of the most comprehensive of the many studies exploring this relationship is
Lee Rainwater, "Some Aspe Smith and K It is interesting to note that with Zn halides the
reaction stopped at the cannabidiol (12) stage with 11 but proceeded to the
THC stage with 25 with apparently no isomerization of t:,1_ to t:,6-THC, even
during an extended reaction time Metabolites Functionalized in the Alicyclic Ring
19 has also been developed 24 to produce 50 g lots of 1 of very high
purity ced with many fruits, but because of the strength of the crystals - the
only real taste goes hand in hand with the expectorant effects of the THC. You better try it for yourself. Smell:
A strong pungency first hits you, then follows a sour sweetness with the final whiff ... turning sweet. If a plant
could have a strong body odour then the White Widow needs a deodorant. Visuals: If you have ever seen a
green plant grown in a snowfall then that's it. It has a dense covering of the sort of hairy crystals we all craving
for. Touch: If you manage to touch this plant without sticking to the leaves or stem then you probably did not
grow it properly. It has intense crystal formation that needs to be touched to be believed! Stone: After the first
puff, that daunting warm feeling of impending stoniess comes over you. You feel it just under your eyes and
throughout your body in time. It is a serious heavy highness. Family Heritage: Originally the union came from
a Brazilian and an Indian - Suffice to say the combination is 60: 40 sativa to indica ratio. – Green House Seed
"Vegetative Time: At least 2 to 4 weeks if on Bio. On Hydro it is only recommended to grow it for 2 weeks.
Flowering Time: On both mediums it is suggested to flower (12 hour light) the White Widow for 8 weeks, but 10
weeks will really give you the crystals you are after. We suggest the final 2 weeks of the flowering cycle to turn
the lights off altogether - or at least down to 8 hours. This keeps the flowers from regrowth and stresses the
plant into giving up its last drop of goodness as crystal to protect the flower...try it! Achievements: 1st Place -
BIO - HTCC - Award 1995.” – Green House Seed Co. catalog"
"“The most rewarded variety of recent years in Holland. The plants are white with THC glands, even on big parts
of the fan leaves. A very soft smoke and great high. Very potent.
Specifications: ~ Flower: 8 weeks ~ Harvest: end of Oct.” – Dutch Passion seedbank catalog"
"“It is a serious heavy high. Heritage: Originally the union came from a Brazilian and an Indian. Suffice to say
the combination is 60% Sativa to 40% Indica. The most rewarded variety of recent years in Holland. The plants
are white of THC-glands, even on big parts of the fan leaves. A very soft smoke and great ""High"". Very potent.
1st place winner 8th Cannabis Cup. 1st place winner 8th international Hydroponic Cup. A compact, medium
height, Indica dominated variety with a sweet 'Skunky' high. Incredibly resinous with profuse white, crystallized
flowering heads. Delicious odor and taste.
Flowering period 8-10 weeks for crystals (50-60 days), outside 10-14 weeks.
Height: Height: inside: 60-75 cm, outside 1.50-2.00m
Yield: up to 150 gr.
Harvest time under natural light: End of October.
Appearance: very strong plant with big leaves.” – Sensi Seedbank catalog"
"“This fabled bio probably derives its name from its whitish appearance creat tions (holes) at the bottom. The perforated pot sits on a small
dish (you should be able to buy these at the same time you buy your
pots). When you water your plant some of the water may drain down
through the soil and come out through the perforations and into the
dish. The dish should be emptied if this happens to avoid water spills.
More advanced growers use pots that do not contain
perforations at the bottom. This is because advanced growers never
water or feed their plants too much. If you over-water your plant, these
perforated pots will drain some of the water through to the dish. What
happens is that the water may also leech down some of the nutrients
that you have added to your soil. Over-watering can cost you time,
wasted nutrients and even kill your plant.
Before you use a pot make sure that you clean it thoroughly
before use to get rid of any unwanted chemicals or dust that may have
gathered in the shop or factory.
Pots are very cheap to buy. It is always best that you only use
one pot per plant. If there is a problem with the soil, watering or
nutrients then only one plant will feel the effects.
Figure 5.23 - Picture by Chrisesq.
Figure 5.24 - This is a great picture of a method known as doublepotting
which helps create a thicker stem. During vegetative growth
the bottom of the top pot is cut away and is placed on top of a new pot
with fresh soil. The roots grow down into the next pot. Look at the size
of the cola in this picture by GIYO.
CONTINUING YOUR INDOOR SOIL GROWING
So at this stage you now have the best soil that you can get
your hands on. You take the seedling and make the transplant. You fill
in the empty areas of the new pot with more soil. You pat down the top
of soil lightly and you apply the stake if needed to support your plant.
You also add a small amount of water to your pot and you place the
pot on the bench under the light. You will leave the light on 24 hours a
day and watch as your plant grows over the weeks from its seedling
cycle to its vegetative state.
Figure 5.25 - A Picture of seedlings finishing their seedling stage and
going into vegetative growth. By Vic High.
Figure 5.26 - Top shot of an Indica plant in veg by Ralpheme.
INDOOR VEGETATIVE GROWTH
During your plants vegetative cycle it will begin to grow
quickly and produce more leaves and new branches. The stem will also
grow thicker. This is when your plant begins to look like a marijuana
Water your plant ever second or third day or better still when
they dry out. Never let the soil dry out completely for long periods of
time. The following method works best with good size pots.
Day A - watering, Day B - let dry, Day C - let dry, Day D - check soil
and water if needed.
This really does depend on the size of your pots though. If you
pick up your pot when it is dry and pick up the same pot when it is has
been watered, you can tell the difference in weight. This is a 19
of Petrzilka's procedure (Chart 1 128 The analog 240 126 was obtained from
237 on treatment with dimethylaminopropyl chloride in the presence of butyllithium "The trick is to not allow too much upward growth- on node 7 or 8, pinch out. Take the bottom 2 branches of.
You should be left with about 6 branches which will rapidly bush out to form a 'goblet' shape. These branches
will, in turn, produce branches growing into centre of plant. These secondary branches should be cut back to
about 3 or 4 nodes on the same day that flowering is started. Durban starts to flower very rapidly- you should
see signs within a week. After about 10- 14 days, pinch main branch-tips of. These will have shot upwards to
form a crown that will now fill out into colas. Final plant should be just over 2 foot from seed or 1.5 foot from
cutting. High is totally unbelievable- its like the first time you got stoned, but better- its clean, spacey,
cerebral and euphoric. Yield is average, nothing a cash-cropper would be impressed about but for personal its
"Mel Frank says that he knows the breeder in California that developed Durban Poison, and that it came from
2 females out of 16 grown from 1 variety out of six that came from South Africa. Only those two plants were
worth a damn. What he doesn't say is that there must have been some other plants in the mix; a male, eh?
He notes that genetics among growers in SA were already all jumbled up from the sources they had to draw
on, so the claims that Durban is a pure sativa have to be taken with a grain of salt." - SCW
"I'm trying some Durban from Aloha out right now in SOG. I've harvested a small test clone from the female
and it was good quality so I have a little sea of her going now.. 4 per foot in organics, mostly castings. She
stretched more than I wanted or expected under the 1K Agrosun MH, I was aiming for 2 foot high at finish but
will probably hit 2.5. You can train and prune and tie her all over but it won't change the node spacing which
makes for the lankiness. Budding them around 6 to 8 inches, or 5 days of veg is about where I'd do it next
time. The yield should be good, not great.. it won't be huge like a good indica, but weight has more to do
with flowering times and amount of resin (how many cycles per year can you get, and resin weighs alot). I
have no idea if these plants are even distant relatives of the seeds you might get." - ~shabang~
"I messed around with Durban in a 24" sog setup, and it just wouldn't work, but I did have one plant that
stayed fairly short, so I cloned it for a mother and put it aside for some months. Recently I switched to scrog,
and thought of the Durban, so I cloned it up and ran 5 of them under the screen in a 2 x 2' space with a 220
HPS conversion bulb. The Durban wanted to run a bit, but that was OK with the screen method. What I have
now is a number of 4-8" flower spikes about the size of large cigars, and there has been no vertical stretching
for a couple of weeks. I think it will mature nicely, which is good, as Durban is our #1 favorite day smoke. A
bit spindly, yes, but I can live with